AIM Banner


Akmaev, R. A., V. I. Fomichev, and X. Zhu (2006), Impact of middle- atmospheric composition changes on greenhouse cooling in the upper atmosphere, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 68, 1879–1889,

Alexander M. J. and A. W., Grimsdell, (2013), Seasonal cycle of orographic gravity wave occurrence above small islands in the Southern Hemisphere: Implications for effects on the general circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 11,589–11,599, doi:10.1002/2013JD020526

Azeem, I, Yue, J., L. Hoffmann, S. D. Miller, W. C. Straka III and G. Crowley (2015), Multi sensor profiling of a concentric gravity wave propagating from the troposphere to the ionosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42(19), doi:

Bailey, S. M., B. Thurairajah, C. E. Randall, L. Holt, D. E. Siskind, V. L. Harvey, K. Venkataramani, M. E. Hervig, P. Rong, J. M. Russell III (2014), A multi tracer analysis of thermosphere to stratosphere descent triggered by the 2013 stratospheric sudden warming, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 5216–5222, doi:10.1002/2014GL059860

Bailey, S. M., G. E. Thomas, M. E. Hervig, J.D. Lumpe, C. E. Randall, J. N. Carstens, B. Thurairajah, D. W. Rusch, J. M. Russell, and L.L. Gordley (2015), Comparing nadir and limb viewing observations of polar mesospheric clouds: The effect of the assumed particle size distribution, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2015.02.007

Bardeen, C. G., O. B. Toon, E. J. Jensen, M. E. Hervig, C. E. Randall, S. Benze, D. R. Marsh, and A. Merkel (2010), Numerical simulations of the three-dimensional distribution of polar mesospheric clouds and comparisons with Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) experiment and the Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment (SOFIE) observations, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D10204,

Benze, S., C. E. Randall, M. T. DeLand, G. E. Thomas, D. W. Rusch,S. M. Bailey, J. M. Russell III,W. McClintock, A. W. Merkel, C. Jeppesen (2009),Comparison of Polar Mesospheric Cloud Measurements from the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size Experiment and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument in 2007, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 71,

Benze, S., C. E. Randall, M. T. DeLand, G. E. Thomas, S. M. Bailey, J. M. Russell III and A. W. Merkel (2011), Evaluation of AIM CIPS measurements of Polar Mesospheric Clouds by comparison with SBUV data, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 73, 2065-2072,

Berger, U, and F-J. Lübken (2015), Trends in mesospheric ice layers in the Northern Hemisphere during 1961-2013, J. Geophys. Res., 120, 11,277–11,298, doi:10.1002/2015JD023355

Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D., D. Nesvorný, P. Pokorný, D. Janches, and J. M. C. Plane (2016), Sources of cosmic dust in the Earth's atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 11,979–11,986, doi:10.1002/2016GL071697

Chandran, A., D. W. Rusch, A. W. Merkel, S. E. Palo, G. E. Thomas, M. J. Taylor, S. M. Bailey, and J. M. Russell III (2010), Polar mesospheric cloud structures observed from the cloud imaging and particle size experiment on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere spacecraft: Atmospheric gravity waves as drivers for longitudinal variability in polar mesospheric cloud occurrence, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D13102, doi:10.1029/2009JD013185

Chang, L. C., Lin, C.-H., Yue, J., Liu, J.-Y., and Lin, J.-T. (2013), Stationary planetary wave and nonmigrating tidal signatures in ionospheric wave 3 and wave 4 variations in 2007–2011 FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC observations, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, 6651–6665, doi:10.1002/jgra.50583

Chang, L. C., Y.-Y. Sun, J. Yue, J. C. Wang, and S.-H. Chien (2016), Coherent seasonal, annual, and quasi-biennial variations in ionospheric tidal/SPW amplitudes, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, 6970–6985, doi:10.1002/2015JA022249

Clancy, R.T. and B.J. Sandor (1998), CO2 ice clouds in the upper atmosphere of Mars, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 489-492, doi: 10.1029/98GL00114

Dalin, P. et al. (2006), Comparison of long-term Moscow and Danish NLC observations: statistical results, Ann. Geophys., 24, 2841-2849, doi:10.5194/angeo-24-2841-2006

DeLand, M. T., E. P. Shettle, G. E. Thomas, and J. J. Olivero (2007), Latitude-dependent long-term variations in polar mesospheric clouds from SBUV Version 3 PMC data, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10315, doi:10.1029/2006JD007857

DeLand, M. T. and Thomas, G. E. (2015), Updated PMC trends derived from SBUV data. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 2140–2166. doi: 10.1002/2014JD022253

Dubietis A., Dalin P., Balčiunas R., Černis K. (2010), Observations of noctilucent clouds from Lithuania, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 72, 1090–1099,

Eckermann, S. D. and P. Preusse, (1999), Global measurements of stratospheric mountain waves from space, Science, 286(5444), 1534-1537, DOI: 10.1126/science.286.5444.1534

Emmert, J.T., Stevens, M.H., Bernath, P.F., Drob, D.P., and C.D. Boone (2012), Observations of increasing carbon dioxide concentration in Earth's thermosphere, Nature Geoscience, vol. 5, pp. 868-871, doi:10.1038/ngeo1626

Fiedler, J., G. Baumgarten, U. Berger, P. Hoffmann, N. Kaifler, and F.-J. Lübken (2011), NLC and the background atmosphere above ALOMAR, Ann. Geophys., 11, 5701-5717, doi:10.5194/acp-11-5701-2011

Gabrielli, P., et al. (2004), Meteoritic smoke fallout over the Holocene epoch revealed by iridium and platinum in Greenland ice, Nature, 432(1011), doi:10.1038/nature03137

Garcia, R. R. (1989), Dynamics, radiation, and photochemistry in the mesosphere: Implications for the formation of noctilucent clouds, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14,605-14,615, doi:10.1029/JD094iD12p14605

Garcia, R. R., M. López-Puertas, B. Funke, D. E. Kinnison, D. R. Marsh, and L. Qian (2016), On the secular trend of COx and CO2 in the lower thermosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 3634–3644, doi:10.1002/2015JD024553

Garcia-Comas et al. (2014), MIPAS temperature from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere: Comparison of vM21 with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, SABER, SOFIE and lidar measurements, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3633–3651, doi:10.5194/amt-7-3633-2014

García-Comas, M., López-Puertas, M., Funke, B., Jurado-Navarro, Á. A., Gardini, A., Stiller, G. P., Clarmann, T. v., and Höpfner, M., (2016), Measurements of Global Distributions of Polar Mesospheric Clouds during 2005–2012 by MIPAS/Envisat, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2016-116

Genge, M. J., J. Larsen, M. Van Ginneken, and M.D. Suttle (2016), An urban collection of modern-day large micrometeorites: Evidence for variations in the extraterrestrial dust flux through the Quaternary, Geology, G38352.1, doi:10.1130/G38352..1

Gerding, M. et al. (2013), Diurnal variations of midlatitude NLC parameters observed by daylight-capable lidar and their relation to ambient parameters, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 6390-6394, doi:10.1002/2013GL057955

Gerrard, A. J., T. J. Kane, S. D. Eckermann, and J. P. Thayer (2004), Gravity waves and mesospheric clouds in the summer middle atmosphere: A comparison of lidar measurements and ray modeling of gravity waves over Sondrestrom, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D10103, doi:10.1029/2002JD002783

Gómez-Ramírez, D., J. W. C. McNabb, J. M. Russell III, M. E. Hervig, L. E. Deaver, G. Paxton, and P. F. Bernath (2013), Empirical correction of thermal responses in the Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment nitric oxide measurements and initial data validation results, Appl. Opt., 52(13), 2950–2959,

Gordley, L.L., et al., (2009), The Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment (SOFIE), J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 71,

Gu, S.-Y., H.-L.Liu, X. Dou, and Tao Li (2016), Influence of the sudden stratospheric warming on quasi-2-day waves, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4885–4896, doi:10.5194/acp-16-4885-2016

Harvey, V. L., C. E. Randall, and R. L. Collins (2015), Chemical definition of the mesospheric polar vortex, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., doi:10.1002/2015JD023488

Hendrickx, K., L. Megner, J. Gumbel, D. E. Siskind, Y. J. Orsolini, H. N. Tyssøy, and M. Hervig (2015), Observation of 27 day solar cycles in the production and mesospheric descent of EPP-produced NO, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/2015JA021441

Hervig, M., and D. Siskind (2006), Decadal and inter-hemispheric variability in polar mesospheric clouds, water vapor, and temperature, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys.,

Hervig, M.E., L.L. Gordley, M. Stevens, J.M. Russell, S. Bailey, and G. Baumgarten (2009a), Interpretation of SOFIE PMC measurements: Cloud identification and derivation of mass density, particle shape, and particle size, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 71, 316-330,

Hervig, M.E. et al. (2009b), Relationships between polar mesospheric clouds, temperature, and water vapor from Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE) observations, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D20203, 10.1029/2009JD012302

Hervig, M. E., M. Rapp, R. Latteck, and L. L. Gordley (2010), Observations of mesospheric ice particles from the ALWIN radar and SOFIE, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys.,

Hervig, M. E., and L. L. Gordley (2010), The temperature, shape, and phase of mesospheric ice from SOFIE observations, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D15208,

Hervig, M. E., L. E. Deaver, C. G. Bardeen, J. M. Russell, S. M. Bailey, and L. L. Gordley (2012), The content and composition of meteoric smoke in mesospheric ice particles from SOFIE observations, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys.,

Hervig, M. E., and M. H. Stevens (2014), Interpreting the 35-year SBUV PMC record with SOFIE observations, J. Geophys. Res., 119 (22), doi: 10.1002/2014JD021923

Hervig, M. E., D. E. Siskind, S. M. Bailey, J. M. Russell III (2015), The influence of PMCs on water vapor and drivers behind PMC variability from SOFIE observations, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2015.07.010

Hervig, M. E., U. Berger, and D. E. Siskind (2016a), Decadal variability in PMCs and implications for changing temperature and water vapor in the upper mesosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, doi:10.1002/2015JD024439

Hervig, M. E., M. Gerding, M. H. Stevens, R. Stockwell, S. M. Bailey, J. M. Russell, G. Stober (2016b), Mid-latitude mesospheric clouds and their environment from SOFIE observations, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 149, 1-14.,

Hervig, M. E., C. G. Bardeen, D. E. Siskind, M. J. Mills, R. Stockwell, (2017), Meteoric smoke and H2SO4 aerosols in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, Geophys. Res. Letters, 44, doi:10.1002/2016GL072049

Hoffmann, L and M. J. Alexander, (2009) Retrieval of stratospheric temperatures from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder radiance measurements for gravity waves studies, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D07105, doi:10.1029/2008JD011241

Hoffmann et al., (2013), A global view of stratospheric gravity wave hotspots located with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder observations, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 416-434, doi:10.1029/2012JD018658

Hoffmann, L., Alexander, M. J., Clerbaux, C., Grimsdell, A. W., Meyer, C. I., Rößler, T., and Tournier, B. (2014), Intercomparison of stratospheric gravity wave observations with AIRS and IASI, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4517-4537, doi:10.5194/amt-7-4517-2014

Hoffmann, L., Spang, R., Orr, A., Alexander, M. J., Holt, L. A., and Stein, O. (2016), A decadal satellite record of gravity wave activity in the lower stratosphere to study polar stratospheric cloud formation, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2016-757, in review.

Huang, K. M., A. Z. Liu, S. D. Zhang, F. Yi, C. M. Huang, Q. Gan, Y. Gong, Y. H. Zhang, and R. Wang (2015), Observational evidence of quasi-27-day oscillation propagating from the lower atmosphere to the mesosphere over 20N, Ann. Geophys., 33, 1321–1330, doi:10.5194/angeo-33-1321-2015

Kirkwood, S. et al. (2008), Noctilucent clouds observed from the UK and Denmark – trends and variations over 43 years, Ann. Geophys., 26, 1243-1254, doi:10.5194/angeo-26-1243-2008

Kirkwood, S., M. Hervig, E. Belova, and A. Osepian (2010), Quantitative Relation between PMSE and Ice Mass Density, Ann. Geophys., 28, 1333-1343, doi:10.5194/angeo-28-1333-2010

Laeng, A., et al. (2014) Validation of MIPAS IMK/IAA V5R_O3_224 ozone profiles, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 7, 3953-3991, doi:10.5194/amtd-7-3953-2014

Li, Q., M. Rapp, J. Rottger, R. Latteck, M. Zecha, I. Strelnikova, G. Baumgarten, Mark Hervig, C. Hall, and M. Tsutsumi (2010), Microphysical parameters of mesospheric ice clouds derived from calibrated observations of polar mesosphere summer echoes at Bragg wavelengths of 2.8 m and 30 cm, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D00113, doi:10.1029/2009JD012271

Liu, X., J. Yue, J. Xu, L. Wang, W. Yuan, J. M. Russell III, and M. E. Hervig (2014), Gravity wave variations in the polar stratosphere and mesosphere from SOFIE/AIM temperature observations, J. Geophys. Res.- Atmospheres, 119, 7368–7381, doi:10.1002/2013JD021439

Liu, X., J. Yue, J. Xu, W. Yuan, J. M. Russell III, and M. E. Hervig (2015), Five-day waves in polar stratosphere and mesosphere temperature and mesospheric ice water measured by SOFIE/AIM, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 3872–3887, doi:10.1002/2015JD023119

Liu X., J. Yue, J. Xu, W. Yuan, J. M. Russell III, M. E. Hervig, and T. Nakamura (2016), Persistent longitudinal variations in 8 years of CIPS/AIM Polar Mesospheric Clouds, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 8390-8409, doi:10.1002/2015JD024624

Lübken, F.-J., U. Berger, and G. Baumgarten (2009), Stratospheric and solar cycle effects on long-term variability of mesospheric ice clouds, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D00I06, doi:10.1029/2009JD012377
Lübken, F.-J., and U. Berger (2011), Latitudinal and interhemispheric variation of stratospheric effects on mesospheric ice layer trends, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D00P03, doi:10.1029/2010JD015258

Lübken, F.-J., U. Berger, and G. Baumgarten (2013), Temperature trends in the midlatitude summer mesosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 13,347–13,360, doi:10.1002/2013JD020576

Lumpe, J. D., S. M. Bailey, J. N. Carstens, C. E. Randall, D.W. Rusch, G. E. Thomas, K. Nielsen, C. Jeppesen, W. E. McClintock, A.W. Merkel, L. Riesberg, B. Templeman, G. Baumgarten, J. M. Russell, IlI (2013), Retrieval of polar mesospheric cloud properties from CIPS: algorithm description, error analysis and cloud detection sensitivity, J. Atmos. Solar. Terr. Phys., 104, 167-196,

Marti, J. J., A. Jefferson, X. P. Cai, C. Richert, P. H. McMurry, and F. Eisele (1997), H2SO4 vapor pressure of sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate solutions, J. Geophys. Res., 102 (D3), 3725–3735, doi:10.1029/96JD03064

Merkel, A. W., D. R. Marsh, A. Gettelman, and E. J. Jensen (2009), On the relationship of polar mesospheric cloud ice water content, particle radius and mesospheric temperature and its use in multi-dimensional models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 8889-8901.

McCarty, W., L. Coy, R. Gelaro, A. Huang, D. Merkova, E. B. Smith, M. Sienkiewicz, and K. Wargan (2016), MERRA-2 input observations: Summary and assessment, NASA Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation, Volume 46, R. D. Koster, Editor, NASA/TM-2016-104606 (

McClintock, W., D. W. Rusch, G. E. Thomas, A. W. Merkel, M. R. Lankton, V. A. Drake, S. M. Bailey, and J. M. Russell III (2009), The Cloud Imaging and Particle Size Experiment On The Aeronomy Of Ice In The Mesosphere Mission: Instrument Concept, Design, Calibration, And On-Orbit Performance, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 71,

Miller, S. D., W. C. Straka III, J. Yue, S. M. Smith, M. J. Alexander, L. Hoffmann, M. Setvák, P. T. Partain (2015), PNAS, 112(49), E6728-E6735, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1508084112

Mills, M. J., Toon, O. B., and G. E. Thomas (2005), Mesospheric sulfate aerosol layer, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D24208, doi:10.1029/2005JD006242

Mills, M. J., et al. (2016), Global volcanic aerosol properties derived from emissions, 1990–2014, using CESM1(WACCM), J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 2332–2348, doi:10.1002/2015jd024290

Montmessin, F., et al. (2007), Hyperspectral imaging of convective CO2 ice clouds in the equatorial mesosphere of Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 112, E11S90, doi:10.1029/2007JE002944

Nielsen, K, D. E. Siskind, S. D. Eckermann, K. W. Hoppel, L. Coy, J. P. McCormack, S. Benze, C. E. Randall, and M. E. Hervig (2010) Seasonal variation of the quasi 5 day planetary wave: Causes and consequences for polar mesospheric cloud variability in 2007, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D18111,

Nishioka, M., T. Tsugawa, M. Kubota, and M. Ishii (2013), Concentric waves and short-period oscillations observed in the ionosphere after the 2013 Moore EF5 tornado, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 5581–5586, doi:10.1002/2013GL057963

Nisbet, E. G., Dlugokencky, E. J., and Bousquet, P. (2014), Methane on the Rise–Again, Science, 343, 493–495, doi:10.1126/science.1247828

Oberheide, J., and J. M. Forbes (2008), Tidal propagation of deep tropical cloud signatures into the thermosphere from TIMED observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L04816, doi:10.1029/2007GL032397

Oberheide, J., M. G. Mlynczak, C. N. Mosso, B. M. Schroeder, B. Funke, and A. Maute (2013), Impact of tropospheric tides on the nitric oxide 5.3 μm infrared cooling of the low-latitude thermosphere during solar minimum conditions, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, 7283–7293, doi:10.1002/2013JA019278

Pautet P.-D., M.J. Taylor, D.C. Fritts, K. Bossert, B.P. Williams, D. Broutman, J. Ma, S. D. Eckermann, and J.D. Doyle (2016) Large-amplitude mesospheric response to an orographic wave generated over the Southern Ocean Auckland Islands (50.7°S) during the DEEPWAVE project, J. Geophys. Res., 121, 1431-1441, doi:10.1002/2015JD024336

Pertsev, N. et al. (2014), Noctilucent clouds observed from the ground: sensitivity to mesospheric parameters and long-term time series, Earth, Planets and Space, 66, 98, doi: 10.1186/1880-5981-66-98

Preusse, P., A. Dörnbrack, S. D. Eckermann, M. Riese, B. Schaeler, J. Bacmeister, D. Broutman, and K. U. Grossmann (2002), Space based measurements of stratospheric mountain waves by CRISTA: 1. Sensitivity, analysis method and a case study, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D23), 8178, doi:10.1029/2001JD000699

Preusse, P., S. D. Eckermann, M. Ern, J. Oberheide, R. H. Picard, R. G. Roble, M. Riese, J. M. Russell III, and M. G. Mlynczak (2009), Global ray tracing simulations of the SABER gravity wave climatology, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D08126, doi:10.1029/2008JD011214

Randall, C. E., V. L. Harvey, G. L. Manney, Y. Orsolini, M. Codrescu, C. Sioris, S. Brohede, C. S. Haley, L. L. Gordley, J. M. Zawodny, and J. M. Russell III (2005), Stratospheric effects of energetic particle precipitation in 2003-2004, Geophys. Res. Lett.,  32(5), doi:10.1029/2004GL022003

Randall et al. (2017), submitted to Geophys. Res. Letter., [RandallETAL_2017_pdf]

Randel, W. J., et al. (2009), An update of observed stratospheric temperature trend, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D02107, doi:10.1029/2008JD010421

Roble, R.G., and R.E. Dickinson (1989). How will changes in carbon-dioxide and methane modify the mean structure of the mesosphere and thermosphere? Geophys. Res. Lett., 16, No. 12, pp. 1441-1444, 10.1029/GL016i012p01441

Rong, P., J. M. Russell III, L. L. Gordley, M. E. Hervig, L. Deaver, P. F. Bernath, K. A. Walker (2010), Validation of v1.022 mesospheric water vapor observed by the SOFIE instrument on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere satellite, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D24314, doi:10.1029/2010JD014269

Rong, P. P., J. M. Russell III, M. E. Hervig, and S. M. Bailey (2012), The roles of temperature and water vapor at different stages of the polar mesospheric cloud season, J. Geophys. Res., 117 (D4), D04208,

Rong, P. P., J. Yue, J. M. RussellIII, J. D. Lumpe, J. Gong, D. L. Wu, and C. E. Randall (2015), Horizontal winds derived from the polar mesospheric cloud images as observed by the CIPS instrument on the AIM satellite, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 5564–5584. doi:10.1002/2014JD022813

Rong, P. P., J. M. Russell III, B. T. Marshall, D. E. Siskind, M. E. Hervig, L. L. Gordley, P. F. Bernath, and K. A. Walker (2016), Version 1.3 AIM SOFIE measured methane (CH4): Validation and seasonal climatology, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 13,158–13,179, doi:10.1002/2016JD025415

Rusch, D., G. Thomas, A. merkel, J. Olivero, A. Chandran, J. Lumpe, J. Carstens, C. Randall, S. Bailey, J. Russell III (2016), Large ice particles associated with small ice water content observed by AIM CIPS imagery of polar mesospheric clouds: Evidence for microphysical coupling with small-scale dynamics, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys.,

Sato, K., S. Watanabe, Y. Kawatani, Y. Tomikawa, K. Miyazaki, and M. Takahashi (2009), On the origins of mesospheric gravity waves, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L19801, doi:10.1029/2009GL039908

Saunders, R. W., and J. M. C. Plane (2006), A laboratory study of meteor smoke analogues: Composition, optical properties and growth kinetics, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 68, 2182-2202,

Saunders, R. W., S. Dhomse, W. S. Tian, M. P. Chipperfield, and J. M. C. Plane (2012), Interactions of meteoric smoke particles with sulphuric acid in the Earth’s stratosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4387–4398, doi:10.5194/acp-12-4387-2012

She, C. Y., D. A. Krueger, T. Yuan (2015), Long-term midlatitude mesopause region temperature trend deduced from quarter century (1990–2014) Na lidar observations, Angeo Comm., 33, 363–369, doi:10.5194/angeo-33-363-2015

Sheese, P. E., Strong,K., Llewellyn, E. J., Gattinger, R. L., Russell III, J. M., Boone, C. D., Hervig, M. E., Sica, R. J., and Bandoro, J. (2012), Validation of OSIRIS mesospheric temperatures using satellite and ground-based measurements, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 5, 5493-5526,

Siskind, D. E., J. T. Bacmeister, M. E. Summers, S. Zasadil, and J. M. Russell III (1997), Two dimensional model calculations of nitric oxide transport in the middle atmosphere and comparison with HALOE data, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 3527-3545, doi:10.1029/96JD02970

Siskind, D. E., M. Hervig, J. Gumbel, M. H. Stevens (2007), The polar mesospheric cloud mass and the ice budget: 3. Application of a coupled ice-chemistry-dynamics model and comparison with observations, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D08303, doi:10.1029/2006JD007499

Siskind, D. E., D. R. Marsh, M. G. Mlynczak, F.-J. Torres, J. M. Russell III (2008), Decreases in atomic hydrogen over the summer pole: Evidence for dehydration from Polar Mesospheric Clouds?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L13809, doi:10.1029/2008GL033742

Siskind, D.E. et al. (2012), Linkages between the cold summer mesopause and thermospheric zonal mean circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L01804, doi:10.1029/2011GL050196

Siskind, D. E., M. H. Stevens, M. E. Hervig and C. E. Randall (2013), Recent observations of high mass density polar mesospheric clouds: A link to space traffic?, Geophys Res. Lett., 40, 1-5, doi:10.1002/grl.50540

Siskind, D.E., D.P. Drob, K.F. Dymond and J.P. McCormack (2014), Simulations of the effects of vertical transport on the thermosphere and ionosphere using two coupled models, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 1172-1185, doi:10.1002/2013JA019116

Siskind, D. E., D. R. Allen, C. E. Randall, V. L. Harvey, M. E. Hervig, J. Lumpe, B. Thurairajah, S. M. Bailey, J. M. Russell III (2015), Extreme stratospheric springs and their consequences for the onset of Polar Mesospheric Clouds, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 132, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2015.06.014

Smith, A. K., V. L. Harvey, M. G. Mlynczak, B. Funke, M. Garcia-Comas, M. Hervig, M. Kaufmann, E. Kyrola, M. Lopez-Puertas, I., McDade, C. E. Randall, J. M. Russell III, P. E. Sheese, M. Shiotani, W. R. Skinner, M. Suzuki, K. A. Walker, (2013), Satellite observations of ozone in the upper atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 5803–5821, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50445

Stevens, M.H., et al. (2010), Tidally induced variations of polar mesospheric cloud altitudes and ice water content using a data assimilation system, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D18209, doi:10.1029/2009JD013225

Stevens, M.H., L.E. Deaver, M.E. Hervig, J.M. Russell III, D.E. Siskind, P.E. Sheese, E.J. Llewellyn, R.L. Gattinger, J. Höffner, B.T. Marshall (2012), Validation of upper mesospheric and lower thermospheric temperatures measured by the Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D16304,

Stevens, M.H., et al. (2017a), Periodicities of Polar Mesospheric Clouds Inferred from a Meteorological Analysis and Forecast System, submitted to J. Geophys. Res., [StevensETAL_2017a_pdf]

Stevens, M.H., et al. (2017b), Martian Mesospheric Cloud Observations by IUVS on MAVEN, submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett., [StevensETAL_2017b_pdf]

Thomas, G. E. (1996), Is the polar mesosphere the miner’s canary of global change?, Adv. Space Res., 18(3), 149-158,

Thomas, G. E., B. Thurairajah, M. E. Hervig, C. von Savigny, M. Snow (2015), Solar-Induced 27-day Variations of Mesospheric Temperature and Water Vapor from the AIM SOFIE experiment: Drivers of Polar Mesospheric Cloud Variability, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys.,

Thurairajah, B., S. M. Bailey, C. Y. Cullens, M. E. Hervig, J. M. Russell III (2014), Gravity wave activity during recent stratospheric warming events from SOFIE temperature measurements, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos, 119, 80918103, doi:10.1002/2014JD021763

Thurairajah, B., G. E. Thomas, C. von Savigny, M. Snow, M. E. Hervig, S. M. Bailey, C. E. Randall (2016), Solar-induced 27-day variations of polar mesospheric clouds from 
the AIM SOFIE and CIPS experiments, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys.,

Thurairajah, B., D. E. Siskind, S. M. Bailey, J. N. Carstens, J. M. Russell III, M. G. Mlynczak (2017), Oblique propagation of monsoon gravity waves during the northern hemisphere 2007 summer, submitted to J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 2016JD026008, [ThurairajahETAL_2017_pdf]

Turco, R. P., O. B. Toon, P. Hamill, and R. C. Whitten (1981), Effects of meteoric debris on stratospheric aerosols and gases, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 1113 – 1128, doi:10.1029/JC086iC02p01113

Tschanz, B., C. Straub, D. Scheiben, K. A. Walker, G. P. Stiller, N. and Kämpfer (2013), Validation of middle-atmospheric campaign-based water vapour measured by the ground-based microwave radiometer MIAWARA-C, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1725-1745, doi:10.5194/amt-6-1725-2013

Yamashita, C., H.-L. Liu, and X. Chu (2010), Gravity wave variations during the 2009 stratospheric sudden warming as revealed by ECMWF-T799 and observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, doi:10.1029/2010GL045437

Yue, J., J. Russell III, Y. Jian, L. Rezac, R. Garcia, M. López-Puertas, and M. G. Mlynczak (2015), Increasing carbon dioxide concentration in the upper atmosphere observed by SABER, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 7194–7199, doi:10.1002/2015GL064696

Waldrop, L., and L. J. Paxton (2013), Lyman α airglow emission: Implications for atomic hydrogen geocorona variability with solar cycle, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, 5874–5890, doi:10.1002/jgra.50496

Zhao, Y., M. J. Taylor, C. E. Randall, J. D. Lumpe, D. E. Siskind, S. M. Bailey, J. M. Russell III (2015), Investigating seasonal gravity wave activity in the summer polar mesosphere, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 127, pp. 8–20, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2015.03.008

More @ AIM

AIM 2017 Extended Mission Proposal


Education Resources
Mission Summary
Media Center

More @ NASA

Science @ NASA
AIM Mission

NASA Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere

More on the Web

Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere—CIPS Instrument.
Realtime NLC Gallery

Spaceweather (2016, June 29) Climate Change at the Edge of Space

NASA Earth Observatory (2013, June 25) Early Start for Noctilucent Clouds.

NASA Earth Observatory (2011, January 27) Night-Shining Clouds Are Getting Brighter.


NASA's Sun-Earth Education Forum Logo

The AIM mission is a part of
NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum.

Responsible Official: James M. Russell III

Web Curator: Emily M. W. Hill
Emily Hill Designs